IP Video Tech 360: The Value Chain 2015 – 2017, Module to Workflow Integration
IP video tech foundational purchase and upgrade budgets allocated by global operators, broadcasters/programmers (bridging linear and on-demand), OTT services, VOD services, Live-to-VOD integrations, network DVR and the enterprise (on-premises and in the cloud) are expected to surpass $18 billion in 2015.
On the sell-in side, the IP video tech industry is populated with mature technologies, modules, content management services and workflow platforms that continually evolve through organic R & D, acquisition and 3rd party integrations, and positioned to capture a share of this expanding market.
The IP video tech space is a complex environment of media formats and players, bandwidth provisioning, video CMS from ingest to monetization, site and server side video ad insertion, and prior generations of technology in various stages of upgrading.
Value chain principals include Akamai, Limelight Networks, Level 3, Highwinds, ChinaCache, Brightcove, Ooyala, thePlatform, Kaltura, Tivo/DigitalSmiths, Piksel, Adobe Primetime, BlackArrow, Canoe, Tremor Video, FreeWheel, Visible World, Vindico, Rocket Fuel, Sizmek, YuMe, Buzz City, Amobee, Madhouse, Opera MediaWorks, RhythmOne, Smaato and many more.
Digital Video AdTech 2015 - 2017: Monetizing Beyond the Linear Clock
This due diligence level study unifies systematic research initiatives spanning the buy side and programmatic systems (DSPs), supply side and programmatic systems (SSPs), ad networks, audience and trafficking platforms to explain the structural work/dollar flow connecting these marketplaces that deliver ecosystem value.
Digital video spend is analyzed by each adtech provider, and includes desktop, mobile, tablet, set top box VOD, device-centric authenticated sign-in services. Avails are contained in long-form, short-form, in-app, web only media, and through distributed media players bundled with creative (i.e. outstream video).
Video and Mobile AdTech M & A 2005 – 2014: Exit Valuations
Video, desktop, mobile and multi-screen adtech M & A has mustered $1.5 billion in 2014 acquisition cash, 29% of $5.1 billion in cumulative dealings recorded since 2005 (excluding Google’s $3.1 billion buyout of DoubleClick and Alliance Data’s $2.3 billion takeout of Conversant in 2014), commencing when Gannett snapped up Pointroll’s rich media ad platform. Including the DoubleClick and Conversant acquisitions the figure rises to $10.5 billion.
Internet Music Radio Programmers 2014 – 2017: Music Plays and Monetization Mainstays
Internet music radio and track play listening is on a 14.8% growth trajectory, surpassing 36 billion hours in 2014, delivered against promising programmer monetization efforts expected to achieve $1.9 billion in revenue, a 33.3% gain. This research study analyzes ad supported and subscription listening hours (desktop and mobile, with complete 2013 and 2014 YTD monthly hours by programmer), subscriber totals (domestically and internationally), inventory by avail format, sellout rates, CPMs, media spend, strategic adtech partnerships, rep firm relationships and the extent to which programmatic systems have integrated with sector entrants.
Virtual Video Value Chain 2014 – 2017: Ecosystem Operations and Analytics
The virtual video value chain (an ecosystem connecting CDN, desktop, mobile and multi-screen ad networks, ad serving tech, programmatic inventory clearing systems, robust software platforms supporting consumer facing and enterprise centered video, plus IPTV/OTT/VOD solutions, CMS workflow and transformation, media players, encoding, processing, content discovery (including navigation and social conversation), security, optimization and analytics shape a highly integrated global marketplace worth $16.5 billion in 2014 receipts.
This is an 800+ page due diligence grade research report for media buyers, sellers, video publishers, distributors, syndicators, platform solutions providers, investors, VCs, investment banks, agencies, brands and rights holders.
The U.S. component to the value chain grew at a CAGR of 42.2% (2006 – 2013) compared to a 35.7% global figure. Synchronizing growth explains unfolding opportunities worldwide as linear video migrates deeper into virtual networks linking vendors across multiple geographies and screens, as described in this multi-disciplinary product, services and business performance report.
In-Stream and Virtual Video Advertising 2014 – 2017
In-stream and virtual video ad billings are forecast to realize 24% growth in 2014, led by extensive monetization against broadcast and cable programmer inventory, supported by a stable of multi-screen media executions, brand-direct spend, mobile, social, internet music radio and VOD avails.
This report provides brands, marketers, agencies, buyers and sellers a detailed inventory map of the entire marketplace including sellout, views by site and screen, CPMs, spot length, insertion frequencies by publisher, programmer, device, aggregator and network, plus spend traversing ad tech serving systems and media player/recommendation platforms.
Video Ad Tech Systems: Inventory Clearing, Trafficking, Spend and Business Operations Analytics: 2014 – 2016
This extensive video ad tech research report is segment-by-segment portrait of the sector’s economic fundamentals, growth trajectories, media CPMs, serving CPMs, formats supported, business models and marginal performance yielding net revenue. Each segment (video ad networks, trafficking platforms and programmatic technologies) is analyzed against monthly and annual unduplicated inventory, sources of supply and demand, percentage of spend by format (in-stream, in-banner, display and overlay), including domestic and international undertakings.
Desktop and Mobile Music Monetization 2005 – 2016: Advertising, Download and Subscription
Digital desktop and mobile music monetization channels are on track to chart a U.S. business worth $6.4 billion in 2013, 59.8% of the global market. This report is a data-driven analysis of multiple components contributing to the sector’s expanding revenue base. Revenues include media spend bought against desktop/mobile radio/song-plays, video and overlay impressions directed at audiences viewing music videos, audio subscription services and download-to-own sales.
The Economics of Mobile Ad Spend 2013 – 2016: Global Inventory, Media Billings and Business Operations
Mobile advertising networks, exchanges, programmatic trading systems and direct publisher sales combined form a global marketplace worth $7.4 billion in unduplicated 2013 media billings. This sector analytics report presents a detailed accounting of global sales by territory, including the U.S., Europe, AsiaPac, Africa and Latin America, calculated against inventory requests, formats, pricing by region, fill rates, CTRs and eCPMs.
Streaming Radio, Curated Station and Track Play Music: Listening Hours and Revenue Analytics 2013 - 2016
Streaming music radio, curated station and track play listening hours are spinning ahead at a 2013 growth rate of 47.5%, backed by monetization initiatives channeling $1.22 billion into the digital music ecosystem.
This due diligence level sector analytics report presents a multi-year analysis of listening by brand, platform, product offering, business model, subscriber count, available inventory by format, CPMs (national and local), sellout rates and corresponding advertising revenue.
Digital Pre-Roll and In-Stream Video Avails: 2013 - 2016
Digital pre-roll and in-stream video inventory is expanding at a 20.3% rate in 2013, while corresponding media spend is expected to increase 37.8% over the calendar year. This reportÕs analytics attributes increased video spend to higher sellout rates sector-wide--even as insertion frequencies rise--to marketers who are buying scale, including campaigns against YouTubeÕs expansive library and inside social networking environments strengthened by greater inventory transparency.
Video spendÊ outpacing avail growth is fueled by predictive campaign analytics, deployment of performance-based inventory, syndication platforms, sophisticated audience targeting capabilities utilizing integrated viewer behavioral data and better visibility into aggregated mid/long-tail inventory effected through supply side clearing mechanisms.
Media spend against digital pre-roll is presently forecast to bring a market worth $3 billion in 2013, including the mobile platform. Video ad networks are figured to contribute an additional 18.8% of top of spend booked through in-house sales initiatives.
Digital Value Chain 2013
The digital video value chain (comprising CDN, video ad networks, serving platforms, auctions, exchanges, RTBs, integrated video platforms, media transformation, processing, optimization and analytics, mobile ad networks, platforms and media clearing environments made a combined $6.3 billion in 2012 revenue. Revenues (net of requisite publisher payouts) improved 38.1% for U.S.-based vendors, including their international operations.
Globally, the digital video value chain grew 36.6% to $9.4 billion, bookending a nine-year CAGR of 38.6%, as encompassed in this multi-disciplinary ecosystem, operations and business analytics report. This 600+ page edition presents exclusive, extensive primary quantitative research about each value chain entrant and related sectors, comparative growth rates and business model implementations.
Digital Video Monetization 2012 - 2015: Advertising, Download and Subscription Revenue Analytics
Digital video advertisers and virtual storefront merchandizers presided over a collective marketplace worth $12.55 billion in 2012, bookending a nine-year CAGR run of 56.6%, as quantified by a multi-disciplinary sector analytics report..
This research report provides an extensive, data-rich, service and publisher-driven portrait of the market's emergence through 2012, with detailed annual analysis of an eight-year transformation from what was a $347 million media business blip in 2004 to the essential exploitation window of today.
Report contents, data sets and analytics include digital video media spend analyses by format and environment (pre/mid/post roll, in-page, online, VOD, social, mobile, professional and UGC), and by brand, site, technology platform and ad network.
In-stream insertion frequencies, total inventory, CPMs and sellout rates by site, network and aggregator are integral components supporting this segment's valuation models and forecasts.
Digital Subscription and Download Media Merchandizing 2003 - 2015
Digital subscription and download media storefront revenue (audio and video) increased 32+% in 2012 to $12.5 billion, concluding a ten-year CAGR run of 52.8%, as detailed in this retail sector analytics report. This report chronicles the market’s remarkable ascent from a fledgling $271 million business in 2003, with forecasts carried out through 2015, accompanied by annual storefront, service and content category analytics.
Content verticals span music (subscription streaming, song-play and download stores), movies, television, sports, news and entertainment, with U. S.-based brands and their global operations, plus international services with a domestic presence included. Music download and streaming businesses combine to lead the total market with a 59.8% share, paced by Apple’s iTunes and Amazon stores.
Streaming subscription, song-play and radio services (including Pandora, Rhapsody, Slacker, Sony Music Unlimited, Spotify U.S. and others) produced 7% of music segment retail volume in 2012.
Movies and television captured a 38.3% share, led by Netflix, Hulu Plus and iTunes Video stores.
The subscription video category, exhibiting a 10-year CAGR of 106%, has vaulted into prominence, up from a 2.6% total share in 2003, and currently forecast to pull ahead of digital music revenue in the 2016 – 2020 timeframe.
In-Stream and Digital Video Advertising 2012 - 2015
In-stream and digital video advertising momentum rolled forward 52.1% in 2012 to $7.6 billion, capping off a nine-year CAGR run of 62.5%, with more growth ahead, concludes this data rich inventory and spend report. Presented is a systematic, data-driven study of this flourishing market sector by format and platform.
The ecosystem's twin pillars, in-stream and in-page formats, own a combined 86.7% share of the sold market. Third-party video ad networks cleared a 21.4% piece of the $2.5 billion in-stream total.
Research data explains notable adjustments being made to available in-stream inventory (pre/mid/post-roll), and corresponding media spend specifically, by site, network, channel and service.
Expansion of mid/post-roll inventory supporting premium broadcast network properties, cable channel sites, allocated inside Hulu and YouTube (the latter seen across all themed and partner channel content) has been pronounced.
As a result, in-stream insertion frequencies have increased over the past year, and now stand at 1-to-1.04 (or 1-to-2.72 when including YouTube), up from 1-to-1.6 in 2011.
Video and Mobile Ad Networks, Platforms 2012 - 2014: Path to Media Spend Parity
Video advertising networks, trafficking platforms and exchanges when evaluated with and compared to mobile counterparts are projected to process, clear and deliver $13.2 billion in combined 2012 multi-format media spend. This comparative analytics report presents a systematic, data-driven valuation of each sector’s performance, based on multi-year contrasting analysis of billed inventory and net revenue accruing to platform solutions.
Collectively, these diverse monetization solutions are forecast to return $3.6 billion in 2012 net revenue to platform providers. The video clearing/serving sector is forecast at a CAGR of 40.5% (2007 – 2014), while global mobile peers (all formats, including video) are running at a 138.4% CAGR (2009 – 2014).
This report is an investment tool for agencies, VCs, consulting firms, marketers, electronics manufacturers and solutions vendors, and provides exacting inventory management, media spend transparency and market trends by format.
Video Ad Clearing and Trafficking Platforms: Inventory, Media Spend and Business Channel Analytics: 2012 - 2014
Video ad networks, serving platforms, auctions, exchanges, RTBs, DSPs and SSPs are forecast to process $8.2 billion in 2012 connected device media spend, with 75.6% ($6.2 billion) attached to video formats. This sector report presents the channel-by-channel economics of formats supported, media cleared, served, total inventory, fill rates, CPMs, ad serving CPMs and social media CPV/CPCV pricing models that taken together yield net revenue accruing to service and technology providers, post any publisher payouts.
This report is a detailed inventory, media spend, business operations and sector analytics report designed to be used as an investment instrument for agencies, brands, operators, consulting practices, technology, media services firms, VCs and investment banks.
Mobile Advertising Networks and Platforms 2012 - 2014: Inventory, Media Spend and Revenue Share
Global mobile advertising networks, ad serving platforms, auctions, exchanges, mediation environments and RTBs are primed to clear $5 billion in 2012 media spend, approximately 70% of the market’s total worth. This sector analytics report presents a meticulous valuation of the global market by territory, including the U.S., Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, by network and platform calculated against in app and mobile web requests, fill rates, billed impressions, CTRs, pricing (CPC, CPM, CPD, CPI and eCPM equivalents) and revenue share models.
This research report builds the market methodically, analyzing inventory by network and platform across all related geographies. Media spend is reckoned after agency fees. Net revenues accruing to networks are tallied post publisher payout. Extensive data drives media spend forecasts by region, format type and network or platform.
Internet Music Radio and Track Play Growth 2012 - 2014: Listening and Monetization Analysis
Internet music radio and track play listening hours rose 50.5% in 2011 to over 1.3 billion monthly, while monetization initiatives (advertising and subscription) advanced 64.3%, according to this in-depth sector analytics report
This sector research report details how the market’s forward momentum accelerated in 2010, delivered strong usage and monetization results in 2011 which continue unabated in 2012. For the first time, sector revenue growth outpaced that of radio and track play listening hour growth.
The sector achieved $293.7 million in gross media spend (all format executions, including audio, video and display), with another $171.7 million in subscription revenue. The total market is forecast to rise 78% in 2012.
Digital Video Advertising 2011 - 2014
Digital video advertising is projected to rise by 41% in 2011 to $5.6
billion, according to a sector analytics report published by AccuStream
This sector report consolidates multiple video inventory formats across platforms including in-page video executions, pre/post/mid roll, mobile video advertising, paid viral placements, overlays and podcasting.
Corresponding gross media spend for each format is presented in detail, calculated against CPMs, sellout rates, impressions delivered by ad serving platforms, or cleared through auction/mediation environments plus insertion frequencies for pre roll executions that, when combined, reveal the size and scope of the market.
Digital video media spend spiked 89% in 2010, a growth spurt triggered in part by substantial levels of YouTube pre roll inventory entering the ad ecosystem, and further buoyed by another strong performance contributed by the in-page video execution. The growth rate in 2010 was the highest seen since 2006 when the market rose by 130.4%.
The report's four sections are segmented by inventory type. Each section details total inventory, insertion frequencies, impressions served, market and site CPMs which yield media spend. Each section contains relevant Q & A's with the industry's leading executives at the forefront of clearing digital video inventory.
Pre-Roll Video Advertising 2011 - 2014: Inventory and Gross Media Spend
Pre-roll video advertising bought against increasing volumes of premium, syndicated, aggregator, 2nd and 3rd tier, UGC and social media inventory online is powering a thriving market forecast at $1.56 billion in 2011 gross billings, a 48% improvement over 2010. This detailed video media spend report presents a rigorous financial, analytics based forecast of pre-roll inventory, billings growth, insertion frequencies, CPMs (historical to present, by site, brand and content category--including sellout rates), which when combined yield total market value.
An extensive analysis of gross media spend generated by in-house sales teams and corresponding contribution made through associations with video ad networks focused on pre roll inventory, along with exchanges, auctions, mediation and campaign management platforms is provided in detail.
YouTube is the largest pre roll video advertising network online (in terms of both inventory and gross media spend), followed by Hulu.
Video Advertising Networks, Serving Platforms and Exchanges 2007 - 2014: Inventory, Gross Media Spend and Net Revenue Analysis
Video advertising networks, media serving platforms, auctions and exchanges are on track to achieve $1.4 billion in CPM share, transaction and fee-based revenue in 2011, a 67.5% annual rate of growth.
The sector’s participants analyzed ran $6.26 billion in aggregate media spend across their platforms in 2010, with $3.1 billion attributable to video campaigns or inventory.
Video inventory, sellout rates, corresponding CPMs, participation percentages and serving fee data is aligned with business model analytics for each sector entrant, including in-page video serving, premium and remnant/3rd party pre-roll sales with ad serving, exchanges, plus multi-platform operations, and detailed across expanding global operations to yield gross media spend and net revenue.
Online Video Advertising and Media Spend: 2010 - 2012
Strengthened by transaction transparency, ad networks, marketplace auctions, expanding premium inventories, innovative formats, lower CPMs, unambiguous campaign performance benchmarking, ROI and accountability metrics, combined with broadcast buying scale, online video advertising and related media spend is forecast at $2.7 billion in 2010.
Pre-Roll Video 2010 - 2012: Inventory Growth and Media Spend Analysis
Pre-roll video advertising billed against an expanding supply of online inventory is forecast at $758 million in 2010, an increase of 25.2% over 2009. This report presents a rigorous, analytics based appraisal of pre-roll inventory growth, video views, insertion frequencies, sellout rates, CPMs and total market value.
Extensive AccuStream data indicate pre roll inventory grew by 74% last year, while ad spend improved by 42%, the first year in a three-year cycle (currently expected to stretch into 2011) where excess supply exerts downward pressure on CPMs.
Inventory and media spend is analyzed by content category (entertainment, news, sports, music, television, movies and hosted/upload networks such as YouTube, MySpace and Metacafe), site and aggregated brand, as well as paid placements made through video advertising networks.
Online and Mobile Music Spins and Media Spend
Online and mobile music listening (including individual track plays) are forecast to rise 15% in 2010 to 8.3 billion hours, a year after the radio webcasting business underwent a significant round of consolidation.
Despite brand contraction, time spent listening spun out a 9% increase in 2009. Total listening hours are forecast to expand 22% in 2011 building on a more sound economic foundation in 2010.
Audio and video ad sales made up approximately 50% of total media spend made against Internet radio, generating market value of $168 - $190 million in '09 including all paid placement, from banners to rich media executions.
Video Ad Networks and Media Platforms 2010 - 2012
Online video advertising networks and media ad serving platforms are forecast to generate $377 million in video CPM share and fee-based revenue in 2010, an increase of 41% over the prior year comparable. This industry report tallies provider and segment revenue by analyzing video inventory, sellout rates, CPMs, participation percentages and serving fee components of gross media spend.Â
Pre-Roll Video Inventory and Media Spend: 2003 - 2010
Pre-roll video advertising billed online against premium inventory (short and long-form content) is forecast to reach $560 million in 2009, and increase of 31.6% over ’08. This research report presents a rigorous, analytics based appraisal of historical, current and forecast market value attached to the pre-roll avail, comprising total views, insertion ratios, inventory, sellout rates and CPMs that anchor gross media spend estimates.
Online Video Advertising Networks 2007 - 2010: Emerging and Surging
Online video advertising networks are forecast to make $493 million in participation revenue, hosting and insertion fees against gross CPM billings of $2.2 billion in 2009. The industry research report details video inventory and gross media spend for both emerging and established avail formats and executions, including in-banner video, remnant/3rd party pre-roll sales, video overlays, video search and podcasting.
Subscription and Download Media Stores: 2003 - 2010
The report, Subscription and Download Media Stores 2003 - 2010 analyzes content verticals including music, movies, television, sports, news and entertainment with detailed subscriber, service and transaction velocity numbers, monthly and yearly.
Online Video Media Spend: 2003 - 2010
The research report, Online Video Media Spend: 2003 - 2010, calculates multiple ad sales components corresponding to annual growth 2003 – 2010 by avail unit: pre-roll (short and long-form execution), In-banner video, overlays, in-game, podcast, player display and skins.
Net Music Radio 2007 - 2010: Listening Hour Analysis By Site and Brand
Internet Music Radio ad billings came in at $80 million for calendar year 2007, up by 194% over the $26.9 million comparable in 2006 for audio ads. With the addition of $12 - $15 million generated through video ads placed on music sites, gross media buys were approximately $92 million in 2007. A comparison of reach and revenue for both terrestrial radio and online radio/music track plays suggests a market with fully valued potential of approximately $500 - $600 million annually.
User Generated Video 2007 - 2008: Metadata Metrics
This report analyzes UGV interaction rates, focusing on user comments, number of videos and total views, compiled from hundreds of thousands of videos. The report evaluates each content category on AOLUncut, Broadcaster.com, Crackle.com, LiveDigital, Metacafe, MySpace TV, VEOH.com, Vsocial.com, Yahoo Video and YouTube, among others.
Streaming Media Value Chain 2003 - 2007: CDN, Advertising, Subscription and Download Segment Analysis
Since 2003, when the market generated $560 million in media chain value, the steady climb to $4.9 billion in combined market opportunity for 2007 is a testament to how quickly audience demand stimulates both distribution and content investments required to facilitate a better experience and expand the market. This report provides the historical and current day data to bring value chain growth into focus as a market opportunity.
Streaming Subscription and Download Media 2003 - 2008
A comprehensive, data-driven research report that analyzes subscription and download media from 2003 forecast through 2008 by service, brand and content category. Music, news, sports, entertainment, movies and aggregation services are included.
Streaming Media Advertising 2003 - 2008: Spending Analysis by Avail, Brand and Content Category
A comprehensive, data-driven research report that rates, prices and quantifies pre roll video avails, in stream video, audio gateways, audio in stream, embedded ad units, in game video impressions, CPC and more by year.
User Generated Video Advertising 2007: Metadata Metrics and Viral CPM Valuations
This report also analyzes specific content categories inside each site, determines average performance of videos per category based on relevant metadata, and converts those metrics into a CPM. The area between average videos and top performing videos yields a viral CPM opportunity for advertisers.
Pre-roll video avails 2001 - 2006: A site, network and aggregated brand analysis
The era of the broadband media brand is still in its early stages, but it is real, embraced by some of the largest rights holders in the world who are convinced broadband advertising will drive the business toward profitability. Enter the emergence of the pre roll ad unit, which got off to a slow start way back in 2001, but in the span of six years has now become a valued campaign component and an exploitation fact. With more confidence in the advertising model, the broadband Internet market is being reshaped and recast by major Internet and offline brands with more focus and intent than ever before.
Subscription Streaming and Download Media: Revenue and Market Share 2003 - 2006
A detailed market analysis of streaming media subscription and download services, revenue, market share and growth from 2003 through 2006. This report examines streaming and download music, sports, news, entertainment (including download movie services) and platform services revenue and subscription growth.
Guide to Streaming Advertising 2005 - 2006: Agencies to Vendors
This is a comprehensive guide for to buying and selling streaming media advertising in 2005 and 2006. The report takes you through all the essential advertising components--from agencies to vendors--that make up one of the most dynamic advertising environments today. This report is a step-by-step market analysis tool.
Flash Streaming Video 2004 - 2006: CDN, Site And Advertiser Adoption
A market analysis of Flash streaming video, from CDN provisioning capacity, to content site implementation and advertiser adoption in support of streaming advertising campaigns. Flash streaming video has deep roots in the entertainment, creative, production and now distribution communities, and is poised to become the de facto format for streaming advertising. This report looks a how CDNs, sites, and advertisers are incorporating Flash into their overall streaming initiatives.
Streaming Advertising and Subscription Media 2003 - 2006
The most detailed, data-driven and market analysis report on streaming advertising and subscription published by AccuStream Research. A complete and comprehensive analysis of streaming video advertising, streaming audio advertising, download revenue by site, service and brand, CPMs, avail formats, the growing importance of Flash streaming, inventory (pre rolls, embedded/in-page) by site, network and aggregator, who is representing inventory and much more.
Streaming Video Avails 2000 - 2005: Inventory History and Growth by Site
A site-by-site historical to present day listing and analysis of streaming sites (including Internet music radio) with streaming video advertising. The report examines the historical avail formats, placement, CPMs, growth rates in streams, and more. An essential tool for advertisers, agencies, rep firms and content publishers who monetize streams with streaming video advertising.
Streaming Video Ratings 2004: Site and Brand Share
A comprehensive ratings and streaming video share analysis by site, network aggregator, and for the first time, sites all grouped by major brands, including Time Warner, Yahoo, Real Networks, Viacom and others.
Streaming Advertising and Subscription Media: A Complete Market Analysis 2003-2005
An extensive market research and analysis of streaming advertising and subscription media over the period 2003-2005. Sites and available inventory, how inventory is growing and created, as more broadband Internet is being consumed, CPMs, types of advertisers, strategies and expert industry executives offering their insight and knowledge.